Gawrilow, C., Gollwitzer, P. M.& Oettingen, G. (2011). If-then plans benefit executive functions in children with ADHD. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 30, 615-645.
Children with ADHDencounter multiple academic and interpersonal problems presumably due to insufficient executive functions. In two studies we measured executive functions (i.e., shifting, resistance to distraction) and assessed whether children with ADHD can empower these functions by forming implementation intentions (i.e., if-then plans; Gollwitzer, 1999). Children with ADHD made fewer perseverative errors on a shifting task (Study 1) when instructed to make if-then plans. They also benefited from if-then plans in solving math problems that required both working memory and the inhibition of distractions (Study 2). Results concerning implications for research on if-then planning in children with ADHD are discussed.