Liberman, N., Trope, Y., McCrea, S. M., & Sherman, S. J. (2007). The effect of level of construal on the temporal distance of activity enactment. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 43, 143-149.
A series of four studies demonstrates that, across diVerent operationalizations of level of construal, diVerent types of activities, and for both the self and another person as targets, construing activities in high-level terms fosters perception of the more distal future as appropriate for their enactment. SpeciWcally, the studies show that thinking about superordinate “why” (rather than subordinate “how”) aspects of actions, about the implications of actions for one’s personality (rather than the objects that would be used in performing the action), and about abstract (rather than concrete) aspects of actions leads people to expect the actions to be performed in themore distant future. These results suggest that the association of level of construal and time perspective is bi-directional, in that time perspective aVects level of construal and, in addition, level of construal aVects time perspective.