Gantman, A. P., Adriaanse, M. A., Oettingen, G., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2017). Why did I do that? Explaining actions activated outside of awareness. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 24, 1563-1572.
We review the latest research investigating how
people explain their own actions when they have been activat-
ed nonconsciously. We will discuss evidence that when
nonconsciously activated behavior is unexpected (e.g., norm-
violating, against self -standards), negative affect arises and
triggers confabulations aimed to explain the behavior.
Nonconsciously activated behaviors may provide a window
into everyday confabulation of (erroneous) explanations for
behavior, which may also affect self-knowledge.
Implications for self-concept formation and intentionality are